Types of Animation in Animation Movies


Animation has become an integral part of the film industry, captivating audiences with its ability to bring characters and stories to life. From hand-drawn animation to computer-generated imagery (CGI), there are various types of animation techniques employed in creating animated movies. This article aims to explore the different forms of animation used in animation movies, highlighting their unique characteristics and contributions to storytelling.

One prominent example of a type of animation technique is traditional or hand-drawn animation. This method involves artists meticulously drawing each frame by hand, which are then photographed or scanned into the computer to create fluid motion. A case study that exemplifies this approach is Disney’s classic film “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” released in 1937. The intricate artwork and attention to detail showcased in this movie set a standard for future animated films while demonstrating the artistic skill required for hand-drawn animation.

Another significant form of animation seen in contemporary movies is CGI or computer-generated imagery. With advancements in technology, filmmakers can now create realistic three-dimensional animations using specialized software. An imaginary scenario where CGI plays a crucial role would be an action-packed superhero movie like Marvel’s “Avengers.” The lifelike movements and spectacular visual effects achieved through CGI enhance the overall cinematic experience, imm ersing the audience in a world of superheroes and superpowers.

Stop-motion animation is another technique that has gained popularity in recent years. This method involves physically manipulating objects or characters, taking photographs of each frame, and then combining them to create the illusion of movement. A notable example of stop-motion animation is “Coraline,” directed by Henry Selick. The meticulous attention to detail and tangible texture achieved through this technique adds a unique charm to the film, creating a visually stunning and captivating experience for viewers.

Additionally, there is also 2D computer animation, which combines traditional hand-drawn techniques with digital tools. This approach allows for more flexibility and efficiency in creating animations. Movies like “The Lion King” (1994) utilized this technique, blending hand-drawn elements with computer-generated backgrounds to produce a visually rich storytelling experience.

Furthermore, motion capture technology has revolutionized the animation industry by enabling filmmakers to capture the movements of real actors and transpose them onto animated characters. This technique provides a level of realism and authenticity that would be difficult to achieve solely through traditional methods. An example where motion capture plays a key role would be James Cameron’s “Avatar.” The lifelike movements and expressions of the alien characters were made possible through motion capture technology, enhancing the immersive quality of the film.

Overall, animation techniques continue to evolve and push boundaries in creating visually stunning and engaging storytelling experiences. Whether it’s hand-drawn animation, CGI, stop-motion, 2D computer animation, or motion capture technology, each technique brings its own distinct characteristics that contribute to the magic of animated movies.

Traditional Animation

One of the most recognizable and widely used types of animation in animation movies is traditional animation. This technique involves creating a series of hand-drawn or painted frames that are then photographed or scanned to create the illusion of movement. To better understand this process, let’s consider an example: the classic Disney film “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.” In this movie, each character was meticulously drawn by hand on transparent celluloid sheets, known as cels, which were then layered together to form each frame.

Traditional animation offers several advantages that have contributed to its enduring popularity:

  • Flexibility: Artists can easily manipulate the characters’ movements and expressions by redrawing each frame. This allows for more creative control over the final product.
  • Expressiveness: The fluidity and organic nature of hand-drawn animation often result in highly expressive characters that resonate with audiences emotionally.
  • Artistry: Traditional animation showcases the skill and craftsmanship of animators who bring their artistic vision to life through intricate drawings.
  • Timelessness: Despite advancements in technology, traditional animation has a timeless charm that continues to captivate viewers across generations.

To illustrate these points visually, consider the following table showcasing some iconic examples of traditional animated films:

Movie Release Year Studio
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs 1937 Disney
The Lion King 1994 Disney
Spirited Away 2001 Studio Ghibli
Beauty and the Beast 1991 Disney

In summary, traditional animation remains a beloved technique in animation movies due to its flexibility, expressiveness, artistry, and timelessness. However, it is not the only type of animation employed in these films. Next, we will explore another prominent style: Stop Motion Animation.

Stop Motion Animation

Types of Animation in Animation Movies

This technique has its own unique charm and has been responsible for some iconic animated films like Disney’s “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. ” However, animation techniques have evolved over time, leading to the emergence of various other types of animation used in movies.

Stop Motion Animation is another captivating form of animation that brings inanimate objects to life through meticulous manipulation. In this method, physical puppets or models are moved incrementally between frames while capturing photographs. These photographs are then compiled into a sequence to produce fluid motion. A notable example of stop motion animation is Tim Burton’s “The Nightmare Before Christmas,” which showcases the artistry and attention to detail involved in crafting characters and props from scratch.

To further explore the diverse range of animation styles utilized in movies, let us consider a few key characteristics:

  • Expressiveness: Different forms of animation allow artists to convey emotions and tell stories with distinct visual styles. From the whimsical exaggerations seen in traditional 2D animations like Studio Ghibli’s “Spirited Away” to the enchanting intricacies found in stop-motion masterpieces such as Laika Studios’ “Coraline,” each technique offers a unique way to capture viewers’ hearts.
  • Versatility: Animators utilize various materials and methods within different techniques. Claymation, a type of stop motion involving clay figures, can be molded into countless shapes and textures. On the other hand, digital 3D computer-generated imagery (CGI) allows animators unparalleled flexibility when it comes to creating fantastical worlds or realistic simulations.
  • Time-consuming processes: Each style requires significant time investment due to intricate details involved—Traditional Animation demands skilled draftsmanship for every frame, while stop motion necessitates meticulous positioning and coordination between still images.
  • Collaborative nature: Animation involves teamwork, from storyboard artists to character designers and sound engineers. The collaborative effort in bringing these different elements together is crucial in creating cohesive and visually stunning animated films.

In the subsequent section, we will explore computer animation, which has revolutionized the industry with its technological advancements. This digital realm offers a wide range of possibilities for animators to push boundaries and create immersive cinematic experiences seamlessly blending reality and fantasy.

Computer Animation

Stop Motion Animation is just one type of animation used in animation movies. Another commonly used type is Computer Animation. This form of animation involves the use of computer software to create and manipulate images, allowing for more complex and realistic animations.

One example of computer animation can be seen in the movie “Toy Story” directed by John Lasseter. The entire film was created using computer-generated imagery (CGI), which allowed for lifelike movements and detailed textures on the characters and environments.

Computer Animation offers several advantages over other types of animation:

  • Flexibility: With computer animation, animators have the freedom to easily make changes or add details without having to start from scratch. This flexibility allows for a more iterative and efficient workflow.
  • Realism: Computer animation has the ability to produce highly realistic visuals that closely resemble real-life objects and environments. This level of realism can enhance audience engagement and immersion in the story.
  • Special Effects: Through computer animation, filmmakers can create stunning visual effects that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through traditional methods. These effects can help bring fantastical worlds, creatures, and action sequences to life.
  • Time-saving: Compared to traditional Hand-drawn Animation techniques, computer animation can save significant time during production. Automated processes such as rigging, physics simulations, and rendering allow animators to focus more on creative aspects rather than repetitive tasks.

Table – Advantages of Computer Animation:

Advantage Description
Flexibility Allows for easy modifications and additions
Realism Provides highly realistic visuals
Special Effects Enables creation of stunning visual effects
Time-saving Saves time with automated processes

In summary, Computer Animation is a widely used technique in animated movies due to its flexibility, realism, special effects capabilities, and time-saving benefits. It allows filmmakers to bring their imaginative ideas to life with incredible detail and precision. Next, we will explore another popular type of animation – 2D Animation, which has its own unique characteristics and techniques.

2D Animation

Types of Animation in Animation Movies

Computer Animation involves the use of computer-generated images to create animated sequences. One example of computer animation is the film “Toy Story” directed by John Lasseter and produced by Pixar Animation Studios in 1995. This groundbreaking movie brought computer-animated characters to life, captivating audiences worldwide.

There are several key characteristics that define computer animation:

  1. Realistic Visuals: Computer animation allows for highly detailed and realistic visuals, bringing imaginary worlds and characters to life with vibrant colors and intricate textures.
  2. Smooth Motion: Through advanced algorithms and techniques, computer animation enables smooth and fluid motion, creating lifelike movements that would be difficult to achieve using traditional hand-drawn methods.
  3. Complex Simulations: With computer animation, animators can simulate complex phenomena such as physics-based interactions or natural elements like water, fire, and smoke.
  4. Precise Control: Animators have precise control over every aspect of the scene, from camera angles and lighting to character expressions and gestures.
  • Enhanced Immersion: The realistic visuals and smooth motion provided by computer animation allow viewers to immerse themselves fully into the animated world.
  • Emotional Connection: Characters created through computer animation often evoke strong emotions due to their lifelike qualities, enabling a deeper connection between the audience and the story being told.
  • Expanded Artistic Possibilities: Computer animation opens up new avenues for creativity by pushing boundaries beyond what is physically possible in traditional forms of animation.
  • Technological Advancements: The advancements in technology required for computer animation have paved the way for innovations in other industries such as gaming, virtual reality, and visual effects.

In addition to these characteristics, let’s now explore another type of animation commonly used in movies – 2D Animation.

*[Enhanced Immersion]: Computer animation immerses viewers fully into the animated world, providing a heightened sense of realism and engagement.
*[Emotional Connection]: Characters created through computer animation evoke strong emotions in the audience due to their lifelike qualities, fostering a deeper connection with the story being told.
*[Expanded Artistic Possibilities]: Computer animation pushes boundaries beyond what is physically possible in traditional forms of animation, allowing for greater artistic expression and experimentation.
*[Technological Advancements]: The advancements required for computer animation have led to innovations in various industries such as gaming, virtual reality, and visual effects.

Characteristic Description
Realistic Visuals Computer animation enables highly detailed and realistic visuals, creating immersive experiences.
Smooth Motion Advanced algorithms result in smooth and fluid movements that bring characters to life.
Complex Simulations Animators can simulate complex phenomena like physics-based interactions or natural elements.
Precise Control Every aspect of the scene can be precisely controlled, from lighting to character expressions.

In summary, computer animation has revolutionized the world of storytelling by leveraging realistic visuals, smooth motion, complex simulations, and precise control. These characteristics enhance immersion, foster emotional connections with characters, expand artistic possibilities, and drive technological advancements. As we delve into 2D Animation next, it’s important to explore how this form differs from its computer-generated counterpart.

Let us now transition into discussing another type of animation – 3D Animation – which further expands on the capabilities introduced by computer animation.

3D Animation

2D Animation is just one of the many types of animation used in animation movies. Another popular type is 3D Animation, which has gained immense popularity in recent years due to its ability to create lifelike characters and environments.

One example of a movie that utilized 3D Animation is “Toy Story.” This iconic film was created by Pixar Animation Studios and was the first-ever feature-length film entirely made using computer-generated imagery (CGI). The use of 3D Animation allowed for more realistic movement and expressions of the toys, making them come alive on screen.

When it comes to creating animations, whether it’s 2D or 3D, there are several techniques employed. These techniques play an essential role in bringing life to characters and objects within the movie. Here are some common techniques used in both 2D and 3D Animation:

  • Keyframe Animation: This technique involves setting specific keyframes at significant points throughout the animation sequence. The software then interpolates between these keyframes to create smooth motion.
  • Rigging: Rigging is the process of creating a digital skeleton for characters or objects. By defining joints and controls, animators can manipulate these elements easily.
  • Motion Capture: In this technique, real-life movements are recorded using special sensors worn by actors. The captured data is then applied to digital models, resulting in highly realistic movements.
  • Particle Systems: Particle systems simulate the behavior of particles such as fire, smoke, or water. Animators can control various parameters like speed, size, and color to create stunning visual effects.

Animated films often rely on a blend of artistry and technology to captivate audiences with their visually striking scenes. Below is an emotional response invoking bullet point list showcasing how different animation techniques contribute to the overall viewing experience:

  • Immersive storytelling
  • Engaging character development
  • Spectacular visual effects
  • Seamless integration of live-action footage

In addition to these techniques, animation movies also utilize various software and tools that aid in the creation process. The table below provides a glimpse of some commonly used software in both 2D and 3D Animation:

Software Description
Adobe Animate Powerful tool for creating traditional 2D animations
Autodesk Maya Industry-standard software for 3D modeling and animation
Blender Open-source software with advanced features
Toon Boom Harmony Professional-grade 2D animation software

As we delve into the world of animation, another type worth exploring is Motion Graphics. This technique combines design elements, text, and audio to create visually appealing videos or animated graphics. With its focus on conveying information effectively, Motion Graphics has found widespread use in commercials, title sequences, and explainer videos.

Transitioning seamlessly from discussing different types of animation to Motion Graphics allows us to explore yet another exciting facet of the vast field of animation.

Motion Graphics

Types of Animation in Animation Movies

3D Animation has become a staple in the world of animation movies, but it is not the only technique used to bring characters and stories to life on the big screen. Another popular style that filmmakers often employ is motion graphics. Unlike 3D animation, which focuses on creating realistic-looking characters and environments, motion graphics utilizes graphic elements such as typography, shapes, and illustrations to convey information or enhance visual storytelling.

To illustrate the versatility of motion graphics in animation movies, let’s consider a hypothetical case study. Imagine a film about space exploration where scientists are explaining complex concepts related to astrophysics. Instead of relying solely on dialogue or traditional visuals, the filmmakers could use motion graphics to visually represent abstract ideas like gravitational waves or black holes. Through dynamic animations and clever design choices, these concepts can be made more accessible and engaging for audiences.

Motion graphics offers several advantages when incorporated into animation movies:

  • Visual Appeal: The combination of imaginative designs, vibrant colors, and fluid movements creates visually captivating scenes that capture viewers’ attention.
  • Information Delivery: With its ability to present data in an easily understandable format, motion graphics effectively communicates complex information without overwhelming the audience.
  • Creative Freedom: Motion graphics allows filmmakers to experiment with various styles and techniques outside the constraints of reality, resulting in unique and innovative visual experiences.
  • Branding Opportunities: In addition to enhancing storytelling within animated films, motion graphics can also serve as branding tools by incorporating logos or other recognizable elements.

The table below showcases how different aspects of motion graphics contribute to the overall impact of an animation movie:

Aspects Impact
Visual Aesthetics Eye-catching designs engage viewers’ emotions
Storytelling Enhances narrative through graphical elements
Educational Value Simplifies complex concepts for better understanding
Memorable Moments Creates memorable scenes that leave a lasting impression

As we delve further into the world of animation movies, it becomes clear that motion graphics is a powerful technique that adds depth and creativity to visual storytelling. With its ability to combine striking visuals with informative content, this style has become an integral part of many successful animated films.

Transitioning seamlessly into our next section on hand-drawn animation, we explore yet another captivating method used in creating animation movies.

Hand-drawn Animation

Motion graphics is a dynamic form of animation that combines graphic design elements with movement to create visually captivating sequences. One example illustrating the use of motion graphics in an animation movie is “Big Hero 6” (2014), where vibrant and fluid visuals were used to bring the futuristic cityscape of San Fransokyo to life.

In motion graphics, various techniques are employed to achieve engaging and impactful animations. Here are some key features and characteristics associated with this type of animation:

  • Simplicity: Motion graphics often utilize clean lines, bold colors, and minimalist designs to convey information effectively.
  • Typography: Animated text plays a significant role in motion graphics, allowing for storytelling through words as well as visual imagery.
  • Transitions: Smooth transitions between scenes or elements help maintain a seamless flow throughout the animation.
  • Visual Effects: The integration of special effects such as particle systems, lighting effects, and simulated physics can enhance the overall impact of the animation.

To further illustrate these aspects, consider the following emotional bullet points:

  • Captivating: Motion graphics captivate viewers by combining stunning visuals with compelling narratives.
  • Dynamic: The use of movement creates a sense of energy and excitement within the animation.
  • Informative: Motion graphics excel at conveying complex concepts or data in a concise yet accessible manner.
  • Engaging: By leveraging creative design choices and eye-catching aesthetics, motion graphics grab audience attention from start to finish.

Additionally, here’s a table showcasing different examples of motion graphics techniques found in popular animated movies:

Movie Technique Impact
“Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse” (2018) Cel shading Creates a comic book-like aesthetic
“Moana” (2016) Water simulation Brings realistic oceanic environments to life
“Zootopia” (2016) Fur rendering Adds depth and texture to animated animal characters
“Kubo and the Two Strings” (2016) Origami animation Blends traditional crafts with modern technology for a unique look

Transitioning smoothly into the subsequent section, let’s now explore hand-drawn animation.


However, it is not the only method employed by animators to bring characters and stories to life on screen. Another notable form of animation commonly seen in movies is Claymation.

Claymation involves manipulating clay or other malleable materials to create stop-motion animations. One example of this technique can be seen in the movie “Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit.” In this film, the characters are made out of clay and meticulously animated frame by frame. This process requires great attention to detail and patience, as each slight movement must be carefully captured and adjusted.

The use of Claymation offers several advantages over traditional hand-drawn animation:

  • Tangible Characters: The three-dimensional nature of clay characters gives them a physical presence that viewers can connect with emotionally.
  • Textured Surfaces: The ability to mold and shape clay allows for intricate details and unique textures that enhance visual appeal.
  • Physical Interaction: Since Claymation involves real objects being manipulated, there is an added sense of realism when characters interact with their environment.
  • Quirky Aesthetic: The slightly imperfect movements and deformable characteristics often associated with Claymation give films a distinctive charm.

To illustrate these points further, consider the following table showcasing some memorable Claymation movies:

Movie Title Year Director
“Coraline” 2009 Henry Selick
“Chicken Run” 2000 Peter Lord
“Fantastic Mr. Fox” 2009 Wes Anderson
“ParaNorman” 2012 Sam Fell

These films have garnered critical acclaim for their unique visual styles and engaging storytelling, showcasing the versatility of Claymation as an animation technique.

Transitioning into the next section about Digital Animation, it is important to recognize that while hand-drawn and Claymation techniques have their charm, advancements in technology have paved the way for new possibilities. The rise of digital animation has revolutionized the industry, allowing animators to create stunning visuals using computer-generated imagery (CGI).

Digital Animation

Moving on from the fascinating world of Claymation, another popular type of animation in animated movies is Digital Animation. This technique utilizes computer software and digital tools to create lifelike characters and stunning visual effects.

Digital Animation has revolutionized the field of animation with its ability to create intricate details and realistic movements that were previously difficult to achieve. One example of a film that extensively used Digital Animation is “Toy Story,” which was released by Pixar Animation Studios in 1995. The film employed advanced techniques such as rigging, shading, and rendering to bring toys like Woody and Buzz Lightyear to life on the screen.

Now let’s delve into some key characteristics of Digital Animation:

  • Detailed Character Design: With digital tools, animators have greater control over character design, allowing them to create complex models with intricate textures and facial expressions.
  • Fluid Motion: Digital Animation enables smooth and seamless movement for characters, resulting in more realistic actions such as running, jumping, or flying.
  • Special Effects: Through digital manipulation, animators can add visually stunning effects like explosions, fire, water simulations, and magical transformations.
  • Versatility: Digital Animation offers flexibility when it comes to creating different styles and genres. From whimsical fantasy worlds to gritty post-apocalyptic landscapes, this technique allows filmmakers to explore diverse storytelling possibilities.

To further emphasize the impact of Digital Animation in animated movies, consider the following table showcasing successful films that heavily relied on this technique:

Film Title Release Year Production Company Box Office Gross
Toy Story 1995 Pixar Animation Studios $373 million
Frozen 2013 Walt Disney Animation $1.276 billion
Finding Nemo 2003 Pixar Animation Studios $940 million
Zootopia 2016 Walt Disney Animation $1.023 billion

These blockbuster movies owe much of their success to the captivating visuals and lifelike characters made possible by Digital Animation.

Transitioning from Digital Animation, let’s now uncover the fascinating realm of Cel Animation.

Cel Animation

Digital Animation is just one of the many types of animation techniques used in animation movies. This technique involves creating animations using computer software and digital tools, allowing for greater flexibility and control over the final product.

One example that illustrates the use of digital animation is the movie “Toy Story.” Produced by Pixar Animation Studios, this film was revolutionary in its use of 3D computer-generated imagery (CGI). The characters, toys brought to life, were created digitally through a process known as rigging. Each character’s movements were meticulously crafted using specialized software, resulting in realistic and lifelike animations.

When it comes to digital animation, there are several key characteristics that set it apart from other forms of animation:

  • Flexibility: Digital animation allows animators to easily make changes or adjustments to their creations without having to start from scratch. This flexibility enables them to experiment with different ideas and refine their work until they achieve the desired outcome.
  • Visual Effects: With digital animation, animators have access to a wide range of visual effects that can enhance the overall look and feel of the animation. These effects include lighting, shadows, particle simulations, and more.
  • Realistic Movements: Through advanced motion capture technology and sophisticated algorithms, digital animators can create highly realistic movements for their animated characters. This level of detail adds depth and believability to the on-screen performances.
  • Time Efficiency: Compared to traditional hand-drawn cel animation, digital animation offers significant time-saving advantages. Animators can work more efficiently by utilizing pre-built libraries of assets and employing automated processes for repetitive tasks.

To better understand these differences between digital animation and other techniques, let’s take a closer look at how they compare:

Aspect Digital Animation Cel Animation
Creation Process Computer-based Hand-drawn
Flexibility Highly flexible Limited flexibility
Visual Effects Extensive possibilities Limited options
Production Time Relatively faster More time-consuming

As we can see, digital animation offers a wide range of creative possibilities and efficiencies that make it a popular choice for many modern animated films. However, it is important to note that each technique has its own unique characteristics and applications.

Transitioning into the next section about “Cutout Animation,” let’s explore another traditional form of animation that brings its own distinct style and aesthetic appeal to the world of animated movies.

Cutout Animation

Types of Animation in Animation Movies

In cutout animation, characters and objects are created by cutting out separate pieces from various materials such as paper or cardboard. These cutouts are then manipulated to create movement and bring the characters to life. One example of cutout animation is the popular television show “South Park,” where the characters are made using construction paper and their movements are achieved through carefully orchestrated manipulation.

This type of animation offers several advantages that make it a preferred choice for certain projects:

  • Flexibility: Cutout animation allows for easy modification and adjustment. The individual pieces can be rearranged or replaced quickly, making it efficient for creating complex scenes.
  • Cost-effectiveness: Unlike other types of animation that require detailed drawings or 3D modeling, cutout animation requires minimal resources. This makes it an ideal option for productions with limited budgets.
  • Quicker production time: Due to its simple nature, cutout animation generally takes less time to produce compared to more intricate techniques.
  • Unique aesthetic appeal: The use of different textures and materials gives cutout animation a distinct visual style that can evoke nostalgia or charm audiences with its handmade feel.
Advantages of Cutout Animation
– Flexibility
– Cost-effectiveness
– Quicker production time
– Unique aesthetic appeal

Overall, while cutout animation may not offer the same level of realism as other forms, its simplicity and distinctive look make it a versatile technique that continues to find application in modern animated films.

Next section: Visual Effects Animation

Visual Effects Animation

Types of Animation in Animation Movies

Another popular type is Visual Effects Animation.

Visual Effects Animation involves the integration of computer-generated imagery (CGI) with live-action footage to create realistic and fantastical elements within a film. This technique allows filmmakers to bring their imagination to life by seamlessly blending real-world scenes with digitally created visuals. One example of Visual Effects Animation can be seen in the 2019 superhero movie “Avengers: Endgame.” In this film, CGI was extensively used to create larger-than-life action sequences, otherworldly locations, and breathtaking visual effects that transported audiences into a world filled with superheroes and epic battles.

To evoke an emotional response from the audience, here are some key characteristics of Visual Effects Animation:

  • Spectacle: Visual Effects Animation often delivers awe-inspiring visuals that captivate viewers and leave them amazed.
  • Immersion: Through intricate detailing and meticulous rendering techniques, Visual Effects Animation creates a sense of immersion by making unreal elements appear believable.
  • Escapism: By introducing imaginary worlds and extraordinary creatures, Visual Effects Animation offers an escape from reality for audiences seeking entertainment and wonder.
  • Emotional Impact: The combination of stunning visuals and compelling storytelling in Visual Effects Animation enhances emotional engagement, allowing viewers to connect deeply with the characters and their experiences.
Key Characteristics
Spectacle Awe-inspiring visuals that captivate
Immersion Unreal elements made believable
Escapism Introduction of imaginary worlds
Emotion Enhanced emotional engagement

In conclusion, Visual Effects Animation plays a significant role in creating visually stunning and emotionally captivating animation movies. By seamlessly integrating CGI with live-action footage, it brings forth imaginative worlds and mesmerizing spectacles that transport audiences beyond the boundaries of reality. Whether it’s a superhero film or a fantasy adventure, Visual Effects Animation continues to push the boundaries of what is visually possible on screen.


Comments are closed.